Current geographical information systems GIS deal almost exclusively with well-defined, static geographical objects ranging from physical landscapes to towns and transport systems. Such objects, exactly located in space, can easily be handled by modern GIS, yet form only a small proportion of all the possible geographical objects.; This book challenges the assumption that the world is compsed of exactly defined and bounded geographic objects such as land parcels, rivers and countries. ignoring the essential complexity of the world, current GIS do not adequately address problems as diverse as the resolution of crime between national boundaries, or the interpretation of views of people from different cultures. This work, bringing together a range of specialists from fields such as linguistics, computer science, land surveying, cartography and soil science, examines current research into the challenges of dealing with geographical phenomena that cannot easily be forced into one of the two current standard data models.
Love knows no boundaries... it doesn't know the different between gender or race. Love is unconditional, unflinching and unyielding... and with the right person it can and always will be amazing. The love story in this collection of erotic poetry follows the journey of two people through their ups and downs... who never give up on each other, their happiness or the love they feel for one another. Dive into the world of erotic poetry where love and passion comes to life.
The central theme of this book is the extent to which the structure of the free dynamical boundaries of a system controls the evolution of the system as a whole. Applying three orthogonal types of thinking - mathematical, constructivist and morphological, it illustrates these concepts using applications to selected problems from the social and life sciences, as well as economics.
In a broader context, it introduces and reviews some modern mathematical approaches to the science of complex systems. Standard modeling approaches (based on non-linear differential equations, dynamic systems, graph theory, cellular automata, stochastic processes, or information theory) are suitable for studying local problems. However they cannot simultaneously take into account all the different facets and phenomena of a complex system, and new approaches are required to solve the challenging problem of correlations between phenomena at different levels and hierarchies, their self-organization and memory-evolutive aspects, the growth of additional structures and are ultimately required to explain why and how such complex systems can display both robustness and flexibility.
This graduate-level text also addresses a broader interdisciplinary audience, keeping the mathematical level essentially uniform throughout the book, and involving only basic elements from calculus, algebra, geometry and systems theory.